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Surface Weather Observations (Pre-1893)
Monthly weather records from U.S. Army Forts stations (~1820-1871), U.S. Army Signal Service Stations (1871-1892), Smithsonian Institution voluntary observer network (1848-1875), and other stations which conducted weather observations in the 19th century. Observations were generally conducted three times daily, around 7am, 2pm and 9pm. The voluntary and Signal Service stations were transferred to the newly-created U.S. Weather Bureau in 1891. Many of the stations continue on past 1892 in the Cooperative Observations and Surface Weather Observations (1001) libraries. Some keyed data from this series resides in the NCDC digital archive, but the vast majority is held and accessed through the Midwest Regional Climate Center (MRCC), a key partner in digitzation of the records. The MRCC holds keyed data for over 400 stations. The original forms were deteriorating in the National Archives and were converted to microfilm in the late 1930s as part of a Works Projects Administration program. A copy of the set was made for archival at NCDC, and the film was converted to TIFF format images around the year 2000 under the The Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP).
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